Disputation: Bariatric surgery as treatment of type 2 diabetes – clinical and mechanistic aspects

  • Date:
  • Location: Akademiska sjukhuset Enghoffsalen, entrance 50
  • Doctoral student: Petros Katsogiannos, Opponent: PhD Daniel P. Andersson, Karolinska institutet
  • Contact person: Jan Eriksson
  • Disputation

Petros Katsogianno defends his thesis "Bariatric surgery as treatment of type 2 diabetes – clinical and mechanistic aspects2

Abstract

Bariatric surgery can rapidly improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with T2D and obesity. These improvements appear to be partly independent of weight loss, however, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. A randomized controlled trial was designed where 19 patients with obesity and T2D were either operated with a  Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operation or continued with standard-of-care treatment and followed up for 2 years, providing the data for Paper I-III.

In paper I, we focused on changes in whole-body glucose metabolism in relation to changes in adipose tissue metabolism and morphology. We observed an early adipose tissue remodeling and a reduction in adipocyte size that however, did not correlate to the early improvements in metabolic control.

In paper II, we analyzed the neuroendocrine changes after RYGB. We observed changes within 4 weeks with signs of enhanced parasympathetic outlow, reduced morning cortisol, and enhanced incretin and glucagon responses to glucose, suggesting that neurohormonal mechanisms can contribute to the rapid improvement of insulin resistance and glycemia following RYGB in T2D.

In paper III the patients from the RYGB group were interviewed 2 years after surgery to examine the effects of surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We found that the improved HRQoL after RYGB was not explained specifically by the magnitude of weight loss, but rather by the participants achieving a state of union between body and consciousness.

In paper IV, we compared changes in circulating cytokine and adipokine levels in obese patients with- and without T2D. We observed that the cytokine profile of these patients is altered when compared to lean healthy control subjects and persist to a large extent after RYGB despite the weight loss and improved metabolic status.

In conclusion, we observed that in the early post-operative period, neurohormonal changes appear to be more important than adipose tissue changes in improving insulin sensitivity and leading to diabetes remission.

In the qualitative part of our study, we observed that the improved HRQoL was not solely explained by weight loss.